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A Comprehensive Ultrasonographic Assessment of Pediatric and Adolescent Varicocele Can Improve Surgical Results

  • Autori: Pensabene M.; Di Pace M.R.; Baldanza F.; Sergio M.; Cimador M.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2020
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


Purpose: Undetected refluxing venous systems could cause persistence/recurrence of varicoceles in patients undergoing varicocelectomy. Color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is an important tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of varicocele, and could be successfully used to detect a venous reflux in the iliac-deferential district, usually involved in the recurrence/persistence of varicocele. Materials and Methods: We compared 2 historical series of patients treated with Palomo laparoscopic varicocelectomy between 1994 and 2018. In group 1, preoperative scrotal CDUS was obtained, while in group 2, additional inguinal CDUS was performed in order to detect a refluxing deferential vein (DV). When a deferential reflux was found, the DV and internal spermatic vein were interrupted during the same Palomo laparoscopic varicocelectomy. Results: A total of 449 patients underwent left laparoscopic varicocelectomy; 146 of them were not studied for deferential reflux with CDUS (group 1), while in the remaining 303, routine CDUS research of deferential reflux was obtained (group 2). The persistence/recurrence rate was significantly higher in group 1 (13.7 vs. 1%, p < 0.000). Conclusions: The research of a refluxing DV revealed a useful, cost-effective, and simple tool, allowing a better comprehension of the vascular anatomy of varicocele and, thus, a significant reduction of varicocele persistence/recurrence rate.