DNA analysis as tool for identification of bacteria in archaeological watellogged wood
- Autori: Palla, F.; Barresi, G.; Di Carli, E.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2014
- Tipologia: Proceedings (TIPOLOGIA NON ATTIVA)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/97246
S32. Wooden artifacts: from wood identification to dating and
DNA analysis as tool for identification of bacteria in archaeological waterlogged wood
Palla, Franco; University of Palermo; Palermo; Italy Barresi, Giovanna; University of
Palermo; Palermo; Italy
Di Carlo, Enza; University of Palermo; Palermo; Italy
In this work molecular techniques were applied in order to integrate the results obtained by
Optical (OM) and Scanning Electron (SEM) Microscopy, to understanding and assessing the
changes in the anatomical structure of archaeological waterlogged wood (Pinus sp.) induced by
bacteria colonization. Observation of wooden thin sections by OM showed the presence of black
and dark-brown areas (must probably due to sulphur compound) and mineral concretions. The
SEM micrographs revealed a specific cell wall alteration, attributable to bacterial activity and
abundant pyrite framboids (as single structure or clustered). The presence of sulfur compounds in
archaeological waterlogged wood, indicate both long-term burial in anoxic environment and
colonization by sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Molecular biology investigation was performed through ad hoc protocols by direct DNA
extraction from wood samples and in vitro amplification of bacteria DNA target sequences (16S,
ITS regions- rRNA).
The results reveal and identify bacterial genus as Pseudomonas, Cellulomonas, Xanthomonas
and Bacillus that, as reported in the related scientific literature, are the most common
cellulosolytic and ligninolytic bacteria.
Moreover were also revealed the presence of Marinobacter sp. and Desulforudis audaxviator,
respectively iron - oxidizing and sulfate - reducing bacteria.
The investigation protocol set up in this work can be applied to a range of wooden artifacts of
archaeological findings for both identification of bacteria colonization shed some light on the
degradation phenomena, indispensable for correct conservation and restoration strategies.
Corresponding author: Palla, Franco