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Effect of commission implementing regulation (EU) 2020/1319 on the bacterial composition of PDO Provola dei Nebrodi cheese

  • Autori: Busetta, Gabriele; Gaglio, Raimondo; Mangione, Guido; Garofalo, Giuliana; Franciosi, Elena; Gannuscio, Riccardo; Caccamo, Margherita; Todaro, Massimo; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Settanni, Luca; Licitra, Giuseppe
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2023
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


In this study, PDO Provola dei Nebrodi cheese was deeply characterized for its bacterial community and chemical composition. Four dairy factories (A-D) were monitored from milk to ripened cheese. Wooden vat biofilms were dominated by thermophilic rod LAB (4.6-6.5 log CFU/cm2). Bulk milk showed consistent levels of total meso-philic microorganisms (TMM) (5.0-6.0 log CFU/mL) and, after curdling, a general increase was recorded. The identification of the dominant LAB in wooden vat biofilms and ripened cheeses showed that the majority of wooden vat LAB were lactococci and Streptococcus thermophilus, while cheese LAB mainly belonged to Lactica-seibacillus paracasei and Enterococcus. Illumina sequencing identified 22 taxonomic groups; streptococci, lacto-cocci, lactobacilli and other LAB constituted the majority of the total relative abundance % of the wooden vat (69.01-97.58 %) and cheese (81.57-99.87 %) bacterial communities. Regarding chemical composition, the effect of dairy factories was significant only for protein content. Inside cheese color was lighter and yellower than surface. Differences in fatty acids regarded only myristic acid and total amount of monounsaturated fatty acids. The sensory evaluation indicated some differences among cheeses produced in the four dairies regarding color, homogeneity of structure, overall intensity, salty, spicy, and hardness. The integrated approach applied in this study showed that PDO Provola dei Nebrodi cheese characteristics are quite stable among the dairy factories analyzed and this has to be unavoidably imputed to the application of the same cheese making protocol among different dairies.