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Oxysterol mixture in hypercholesterolemia-relevant proportion causes oxidative stress-dependent eryptosis

  • Autori: Tesoriere, L.; Attanzio, A.; Allegra, M.; Cilla, A.; Gentile, C.; Livrea, M.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2014
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • Parole Chiave: Hypercholesterolemia, Human red blood cell, Oxysterols, Eryptosis, Oxidative stress
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Background/Aims: Oxysterol activity on the erythrocyte (RBC) programmed cell death (eryptosis) had not been studied yet. Effects of an oxysterol mixture in hyper-cholesterolemic-relevant proportion, and of individual compounds, were investigated on RBCs from healthy humans. Methods: Membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, calcium entry, ROS production, amino-phospholipid translocase (APLT) activity were evaluated by cytofluorimetric assays, cell volume from forward scatter. Prostaglandin PGE2 was measured by ELISA; GSH-adducts and lipoperoxides by spectrophotometry. Involvement of protein kinase C and caspase was investigated by inhibitors staurosporin, calphostin C, and Z-DEVD-FMK, respectively. Results: Oxysterols caused PS externalization and cell shrinkage, associated with PGE2 release, opening of PGE2-dependent calcium channels, ROS production, GSH depletion, membrane lipid oxidation. Addition of antioxidants prevented Ca2+ influx and eryptosis. Calcium removal prevented cell shrinkage, with small effect (-20%) on the PS exposure, whereas ROS generation was unaltered. Either in the presence or absence of calcium i) oxysterols inhibited APLT, ii) staurosporin, calphostin C, Z-DEVD-FMK blunted and iii) antioxidants fully prevented the oxysterol-induced PS externalization. Only 7-ketocholesterol and cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol were individually active. Eryptosis was observed in RBCs isolated after ex vivo spiking of human whole blood with the oxysterol mixture. Conclusions: Oxysterols induce an oxidative stress-dependent eryptosis, involving calcium-independent mechanisms. Eryptotic activity of oxysterols may be relevant in vivo.