The wine: typicality or mere diversity? The effect of spontaneous fermentations and biotic factors on the characteristics of wine
- Autori: Francesca, N.; Gaglio, R.; Alfonzo, A.; Settanni, L.; Corona, O.; Mazzei, P.; Romano, R.; Piccolo, A.; Moschetti, G.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2016
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/192179
Wine is probably one of the main fermented beverages for which the recognition of the “territoriality” is fundamental for its appreciation. The sensory profile of wine is significantly affected by microbial activities, and indigenous microorganisms may significantly contribute to the expression of wine typicality. The microbial ecology of wines is complex and includes several species and strains of yeasts, bacteria and molds. Several works showed the positive effects of spontaneous fermentations on the quality of wine as a consequence of the growth of different species and/or strains together at high levels. Furthermore, a new style of “natural” winemaking is gaining importance, since the resulting wines are obtained thanks to the action of spontaneous autochthonous agents and the use of chemical addition is not allowed. In this contest, natural winemaking could provide enhanced opportunities for products with unique characters and popularly recognized as typical. The present work reports on microbial ecology and molecular profile characterizing natural large-scale vinifications, and an innovative procedure, named “fortified pied de cuve”, to accelerate the alcoholic fermentation performed spontaneously is also reported. Furthermore, this work reports on how the biotic factors, such as migratory birds, contribute in disseminating of winerelated yeasts over long distances, opening up new fields of research that will allow to unravel connection between wine and environmental factors.