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The renin–angiotensin system in gastrointestinal functions


In this chapter, we describe the role played by classical and alternative renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the physiological regulation of gastrointestinal functions. RAS modulates gut motility and mucosal functions, including secretion, fluid, and nutrient absorption. We focus mainly on the activation of angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors located on the smooth muscle and epithelial cells or on the enteric neurons. Few studies indicate that alternative RAS may counteract classical RAS functions. Although data on the enteric RAS system are still scarce, they encourage further investigations in consideration also of a potential involvement in gastrointestinal disorders.