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Cultural heritage constitutive materials can provide excellent substrates for microbial colonisation, highly influenced by thermo-hygrometric parameters. In cultural heritage-related environments, a detrimental microbial load may be present both on manufact surface and in the aerosol. Confined environments (museums, archives, deposits, caves, hypogea) have peculiar structures and dif- ferent thermo-hygrometric parameters, influencing the development of a wide range of microbial species, able to induce artefact biodeterioration and to release biological particles in the aerosol (spores, cellular debrides, toxins, allergens) potentially dangerous for the human health (visitors/users). In order to identify the real composition of the biological consortia, highlighting also the symbiotic relationships between microorganisms (cyanobacteria, bacteria, fungi) and mac- roorganisms (plants, bryophyte, insects), an interdisciplinary approach is needed. The results from in vitro culture, microscopy and molecular biology analysis are essential for a complete understanding of both microbial colonisation of the cul- tural objects and the potential relationship with illness to human. Concerning the bioaerosol, of crucial importance are the time and techniques for sampling.