Inflammatory reaction and isolation of multifunctional bioactive molecules in cnidarians: from Immunobiology to Blue Biotechnology
- Autori: Trapani, M.; Parisi, M.; Parrinello, D.; Sanfratello, M.; Benenati, G.; Barresi, G.; Palla, F.; Cammarata, M.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2015
- Tipologia: Proceedings (TIPOLOGIA NON ATTIVA)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/157763
The phylum of Cnidaria is one of the first branches in the tree of animal life to provide crucial insights on the evolution of immunity. Cnidarians are diblastic aquatic animals with radial symmetry and they are the simplest multicellular organisms that have reached the level of tissue organization. The renewed interest in the study of immunity in Cnidaria has led to additional information to the scenario of the first stages of immunity evolution revealing the cellular processes involved in symbiosis, in the regulation of homeostasis and in the fight against infections. We investigated the inflammatory response in Cnidarian following injection of various substances different in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions especially after injection of bacteria. The enzymes evaluation (protease, phosphatase and esterase), showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. The Cnidaria phylum has evolved using biotoxins as defense or predation mechanisms for ensure survival in hostile and competitive environments such as the seas and oceans indeed the tissues and the mucus produced by cnidarians are involved in immune defense and contain a large variety of toxins such enzymes, potent pore forming toxins, and neurotoxins. They could also take advantage of the multi-functionality of some of their toxins. The bioactive molecules were characterized and purified by biological assays, acid extraction, HPLC purifications, mass spectroscopy and peptide synthesis. Here, we show the cnidarian bioactive molecules as antimicrobial peptides and enzymes in order to draw important applications in fields ranging from pharmacology to cultural heritage.