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An Integrated Approach to Skeletal Muscle Health in Aging

  • Autori: Agostini D.; Gervasi M.; Ferrini F.; Bartolacci A.; Stranieri A.; Piccoli G.; Barbieri E.; Sestili P.; Patti A.; Stocchi V.; Donati Zeppa S.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2023
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • Parole Chiave: aging; gut microbiota; musculoskeletal health; physical exercise; supplements; vitamin D
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A decline in muscle mass and function represents one of the most problematic changes associated with aging, and has dramatic effects on autonomy and quality of life. Several factors contribute to the inexorable process of sarcopenia, such as mitochondrial and autophagy dysfunction, and the lack of regeneration capacity of satellite cells. The physiologic decline in muscle mass and in motoneuron functionality associated with aging is exacerbated by the sedentary lifestyle that accompanies elderly people. Regular physical activity is beneficial to most people, but the elderly need well-designed and carefully administered training programs that improve muscle mass and, consequently, both functional ability and quality of life. Aging also causes alteration in the gut microbiota composition associated with sarcopenia, and some advances in research have elucidated that interventions via the gut microbiota-muscle axis have the potential to ameliorate the sarcopenic phenotype. Several mechanisms are involved in vitamin D muscle atrophy protection, as demonstrated by the decreased muscular function related to vitamin D deficiency. Malnutrition, chronic inflammation, vitamin deficiencies, and an imbalance in the muscle-gut axis are just a few of the factors that can lead to sarcopenia. Supplementing the diet with antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, proteins, kefir, and short-chain fatty acids could be potential nutritional therapies against sarcopenia. Finally, a personalized integrated strategy to counteract sarcopenia and maintain the health of skeletal muscles is suggested in this review.