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Interventional treatment of sialoliths in main salivary glands

  • Autori: Salerno S.; Cannizzaro F.; Lo Casto A.; Lombardo F.; Barresi B.; Speciale R.; Lagalla R.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2002
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
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Purpose. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventional radiology in the treatment of sialolithiasis, as the first-choice treatment for the removal of stones located in the middle and proximal tracts of the main salivary ducts, and to assess its limitations and contraindications. Material and methods. Between February 1998 and May 2001 eleven interventional removals of sialoliths were performed for recurrent obstruction of the main salivary duct associated with chronic sialadenitis. Patients were selected on the basis of a preliminary sialogram, designed to determine the location and size of the stone. Exclusion criteria were location of the stone in the gland hilum or intraglandular stone, maximum stone diameter >20% of the duct calibre, signs of adherence of the stone to the duct wall. Stone removal, performed after obtaining informed consent, involved administering antibiotic therapy and local anaesthesia, and dilatating the duct ostium to enable introduction of the basket catheter. The basket was then advanced along the duct under fluoroscopic guidance and suitably manoeuvred so as to capture and extract the stone. On completing the procedure a sialogram was taken to ensure the complete patency of the duct. Patients were prescribed a short course of antibiotics and were followed up at 1, 3 and 6 months. Results. In 10/11 patients the stone was located in Wharton's duct and in 1/11 in Stensen's duct. Removal of the calculus was successful in 10/11 patients; in 2 of these it was necessary to reintroduce the basket after extraction of the stone, in order to eliminate small stone fragments and salivary sand; in 1 patient a preliminary balloon-catheter sialoplasty was performed prior to the procedure to dilatate a distal stenosis caused by chronic sialadenitis; in 3 patients it was necessary to make a small incision in the orifice to introduce the dilator. Removal of the sialolith was unsuccessful in 1/11 of the patients treated, as it proved impossible to capture the calculus, even after repeated attempts. 8/11 patients reported pain during the procedure and swelling in the gland region immediately after the procedure, which resolved spontaneously within 24-48 hours. 9/11 patients remained asymptomatic in the follow-up; only 1/11 patients experienced a recurrence of sialadenitis after a short time, with pus secretion, which resolved with antibiotic treatment. Conclusions. The interventional removal of sialoliths in the salivary glands is an effective alternative to the conventional treatment of obstructive diseases of the glandular ducts.