Candida thrombophlebitis in children: A systematic review of the literature
- Autori: Colomba C.; Campa L.; Siracusa L.; Giordano S.; Vella M.C.; Corsello G.; Giuffre M.; Cascio A.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2020
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
- Parole Chiave: Antifungal therapy; Candida; Children; Enoxaparin; Hospital-acquired infections; Newborn; Persistent fever; Sepsis; Thrombosis.
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/436270
Objective: To describe a case of thrombophlebitis associated with Candida infection and to analyze other published reports to define clinical characteristics, prognostic data, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Study design: A computerized search was performed without language restriction using PubMed and Scopus databases. An article was considered eligible for inclusion if it reported cases with Candida thrombophlebitis. Our case was also included in the analysis. Results: A total of 16 articles reporting 27 cases of Candida thrombophlebitis were included in our review. The median age of patients was 4 years. In 10 cases there was a thrombophlebitis of peripheral veins; in the remaining cases the deep venous circle was interested. Candida albicans was the most frequently involved fungal species. The most recurrent risk factors were central venous catheter (19/28), broad spectrum antibiotics (17/28), intensive care unit (8/28), surgery (3/28), mechanical assisted ventilation (5/28), total parenteral nutrition (8/28), cancer (2/28), premature birth (6/28), cystic fibrosis (2/28). Fever was the most frequent clinical feature. All children with peripheral and deep thrombophlebitis were given antifungal therapy: amphotericin B was the most used, alone or in combination with other antifungal drugs. Heparin was most frequently used as anticoagulant therapy. Illness was fatal in two cases. Conclusion: Candida thrombophlebitis is a rare but likely underdiagnosed infectious complication in pediatric critically ill patients. It is closely connected to risk factors such as central venous catheter, hospitalization in intensive care unit, prematurity, assisted ventilation, chronic inflammatory diseases. Antifungal therapy and anticoagulant drugs should be optimized for each patient and surgical resection is considered in the persistence of illness.