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Preliminary results of citraves™ effects on low density lipoprotein cholesterol and waist circumference in healthy subjects after 12 weeks: A pilot open-label study

  • Autori: Raimondo S.; Nikolic D.; Conigliaro A.; Giavaresi G.; Sasso B.L.; Giglio R.V.; Chianetta R.; Manno M.; Raccosta S.; Corleone V.; Ferrante G.; Citarrella R.; Rizzo M.; De Leo G.; Ciaccio M.; Montalto G.; Alessandro R.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2021
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


Appropriate monitoring and control of modifiable risk factors, such as the level of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other types of dyslipidemia, have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, various nutraceuticals with lipid-lowering effects have gained attention. In addition to the plant-derived bioactive compounds, recent studies suggested that plant cells are able to release small lipoproteic structures named extracellular vesicles (EVs). The interaction between EVs and mammalian cells could lead to beneficial effects through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to assess the safety of the new patented plant-based product citraVes™, containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck juice, and to investigate its ability to modulate different CV risk factors in healthy subjects. A cohort of 20 healthy volunteers was recruited in a prospective open-label study. All participants received the supplement in a spray-dried formulation at a stable dose of 1000 mg/day for 3 months. Anthropometric and hematobiochemical parameters were analyzed at the baseline and after the follow-up period of 1 and 3 months. We observed that the supplement has an effect on two key factors of cardiometabolic risk in healthy subjects. A significant change in waist circumference was found in women after 4 (85.4 [79.9, 91.0] cm, p < 0.005) and 12 (85.0 [80.0, 90.0] cm, p < 0.0005) weeks, when compared to the baseline value (87.6 [81.7, 93.6] cm). No difference was found in men (baseline: 100.3 [95.4, 105.2] cm; 4 weeks: 102.0 [95.7, 108.3] cm; 12 weeks: 100.0 [95.3, 104.7] cm). The level of LDL-C was significantly lower at 12 weeks versus 4 weeks (p = 0.0064). Our study evaluated, for the first time, the effects of a natural product containing plant-derived EVs on modifiable risk factors in healthy volunteers. The results support the use of EV extracts to manage cardiometabolic risk factors successfully.