Painful scar neuropathy: principles of diagnosis and treatment
- Autori: Tos, P.; Crosio, A.; Pugliese, P.; Adani, R.; Toia, F.; Artiaco, S
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2015
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/207253
Nerve‑tissue interactions are critical. Peripheral nerve injuries may involve intraneural and extraneural scar formation and affect nerve gliding planes, sometimes leading to complex clinical presentations. All of these pathological entities involve pain as the main clinical symptom and can be subsumed under the term “painful scar neuropathy”. The authors review the literature on treatment approaches to peripheral nerve scar neuropathy and the outcomes of neurolysis‑associated procedures and propose a simple classification and a therapeutic approach to scar neuropathy. The search retrieved twenty-one papers, twenty of which reported pain reduction or resolution with various techniques. There is no consensus on the best therapeutic approach to neuropathic pain due to scar tethering. Most authors report good or excellent results with different techniques, from nerve wrapping with anti‑adhesion devices to nerve coverage or wrapping with vascularized tissue. The authors’ classification of and therapeutic approach to peripheral nerve scar lesions aims at promoting a logical approach based on the analysis of lesion type (perineural, or endoneural and perineural), pain type (due to traction or external trauma, pain at rest), and number of previous operations. Patients need to be informed that multiple procedures may be required, that outcomes may be partial, and that surgery can potentially worsen preoperative conditions. The review found no evidence for the best therapeutic approach to scar neuropathy, but there is consensus on a multidisciplinary approach.