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Effects of Different Long-Term Exercise Modalities on Tissue Stiffness

  • Autori: Thomas, Ewan; Ficarra, Salvatore; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Paoli, Antonio; Bellafiore, Marianna; Palma, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2022
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • Parole Chiave: Aerobic; Plyometric exercise; Resistance training; Stiffness; Stretching
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Stiffness is a fundamental property of living tissues, which may be modified by pathologies or traumatic events but also by nutritional, pharmacological and exercise interventions. This review aimed to understand if specific forms of exercise are able to determine specific forms of tissue stiffness adaptations. A literature search was performed on PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify manuscripts addressing adaptations of tissue stiffness as a consequence of long-term exercise. Muscular, connective, peripheral nerve and arterial stiffness were considered for the purpose of this review. Resistance training, aerobic training, plyometric training and stretching were retrieved as exercise modalities responsible for tissue stiffness adaptations. Differences were observed related to each specific modality. When exercise was applied to pathological cohorts (i.e. tendinopathy or hypertension), stiffness changed towards a physiological condition. Exercise interventions are able to determine tissue stiffness adaptations. These should be considered for specific exercise prescriptions. Future studies should concentrate on identifying the effects of exercise on the stiffness of specific tissues in a broader spectrum of pathological populations, in which a tendency for increased stiffness is observed.