Role of rotation and nitrogen fertilization on the productive and qualitative response of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)
- Autori: Poma, I.; Sarno, M.; Venezia, G.; Bono, G.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2012
- Tipologia: Proceedings (TIPOLOGIA NON ATTIVA)
- Parole Chiave: Triticum durum, rotation, nitrogen fertilization,
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/63989
Correct soil management can improve and/or sometimes restore the fertility of agricultural land. Crop rotations are important to maintain adequate soil organic matter content and to reduce chemical nutritional intake. Qualitative and productive durum wheat response is strongly influenced by soil nutrient availability, necessary for plant growth and development. Nitrogen availability, mainly during the first stage of growth, determines the uptake rate and total nitrogen uptake; later is also responsible of nitrogen translocation from vegetative to reproductive organs, determining yield and grain qualitative characteristics. The aim of the trial was to evaluate cropping system effects and nitrogen fertilization on nitrogen uptake and efficiency of durum wheat in terms of qualitative and quantitative yield in a semi arid environment. The trial was carried out during 2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07 at the Experimental Farm Sparacia (AG – Italy, 37° 37’ N 13° 42’ E), a representative environment for dry Sicilian durum wheat crops. The layout adopted was a split-plot with three repetitions. The main plots had two crop rotations, durum wheat (P1) and legume (P2), the sub-plots had three levels of nitrogen (N0, N60, and N120 Kg•ha-1). The variety of durum wheat used in the trial was "Simeto", generally used for livestock. Sowing was carried out during the first ten days of December by distributing 350 germinable seeds per square metre in elementary parcels of 15 m2. During the preparation tillage, 100 kg•ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to all plots, with half of the doses of N. The remaining N was applied as the crop reached the 3-5 leaf-stage. Weeds were controlled with a post emergency application of herbicide for monocotyledons and dicotyledons. The results showed that grain yields per unit area varied according to the year effect, the precession and the nitrogen satisfaction of the grain. The information obtained from this research is of particular interest as it shows that yields not only showed an improvement in nitrogen use efficiency following legume cropping, but that, in good years for cereal (the first years of trial), they also gave more than satisfactory results with N 120 (6.23 t ha-1) and N 60 (4.78 t ha-1) doses, providing great hope for the future of the Sicilian durum wheat cropping