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Percutaneous Nephrostomy Catheter Misplacement into Inferior Vena Cava in a Patient with a Horseshoe Kidney

  • Autori: Abrate A.; Tulone G.; Giaimo R.; Simonato A.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2020
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • Parole Chiave: complication; emergency; hemorrhage; horseshoe kidney; percutaneous nephrostomy
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Background: Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) is commonly indicated for upper urinary tract drainage in case of obstruction or fistula. Only a few cases of PCN catheter misplacement into the inferior vena cava (IVC) have been published. Case Presentation: We report a case of a PCN catheter misplaced into the IVC through a fistula between the urinary tract and an ipsilateral renal vein in a patient with horseshoe kidney, after bedside urgent replacement for hemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion: Although a nephrostomy Foley catheter can be used for adequate urinary drainage and hemostatic purposes after percutaneous nephrolithotomy, its placement should be always verified through antegrade pyelography and particular care should be used for horseshoe kidneys. In case of massive hemorrhage, after temporary closure of the PCN catheter, the cause of bleeding should be investigated with urgent angiography or contrast-enhanced CT scan and promptly treated.