Dynamic Responsive Inguinal Scaffold Activates Myogenic Growth Factors Finalizing the Regeneration of the Herniated Groin
- Autori: Amato G.; Romano G.; Rodolico V.; Puleio R.; Calo P.G.; Di Buono G.; Cicero L.; Romano G.; Goetze T.O.; Agrusa A.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2022
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/584610
Background: Postoperative chronic pain caused by fixation and/or fibrotic incorporation of hernia meshes are the main concerns in inguinal herniorrhaphy. As inguinal hernia is a degenerative disease, logically the treatment should aim at stopping degeneration and activating regeneration. Unfortunately, in conventional prosthetic herniorrhaphy no relationship exists between pathogenesis and treatment. To overcome these incongruences, a 3D dynamic responsive multilamellar scaffold has been developed for fixation-free inguinal hernia repair. Made of polypropylene like conventional flat meshes, the dynamic behavior of the scaffold allows for the regeneration of all typical inguinal components: connective tissue, vessels, nerves, and myocytes. This investigation aims to demonstrate that, moving in tune with the groin, the 3D scaffold attracts myogenic growth factors activating the development of mature myocytes and, thus, re-establishing the herniated inguinal barrier. Methods: Biopsy samples excised from the 3D scaffold at different postoperative stages were stained with H&E and Azan–Mallory; immunohistochemistry for NGF and NGFR p75 was performed to verify the degree of involvement of muscular growth factors in the neomyogenesis. Results: Histological evidence of progressive muscle development and immunohistochemical proof of NFG and NFGRp75 contribution in neomyogenesis within the 3D scaffold was documented and statistically validated. Conclusion: The investigation appears to confirm that a 3D polypropylene scaffold designed to confer dynamic responsivity, unlike the fibrotic scar plate of static meshes, attracts myogenic growth factors turning the biological response into tissue regeneration. Newly developed muscles allow the scaffold to restore the integrity of the inguinal barrier.