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Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children.

  • Autori: Esposito, M.; Gallai, B.; Parisi, L.; Roccella, M.; Marotta, R.; Lavano, S.; Mazzotta, G.; Patriciello, G.; Precenzano, F.; Carotenuto, M.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2013
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • OA Link:


Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years), and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years). The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI) skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC). Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725), gender (P = 0.886), z-body mass index (P = 0.149), or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient) (P = 0.163). The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M-ABC evaluation and in pathologic performance on VMI Total Task compared to controls (P , 0.001). No significant differences between the two study groups were found for pathologic performances on the M-ABC (P = 0.07), VMI Visual Task (P = 0.793), and VMI Motor Task (P = 0.213). Conclusion: Our findings pinpointed that PMNE should not be considered as a voiding disorder alone and, consequently, the children affected should be referred to specific rehabilitative programs that aim to improve motor coordination and visuomotor integration.