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Molecular chaperones and thyroid cancer

  • Autori: Paladino L.; Vitale A.M.; Santonocito R.; Pitruzzella A.; Cipolla C.; Graceffa G.; Bucchieri F.; de Macario E.C.; Macario A.J.L.; Rappa F.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2021
  • Tipologia: Review essay (rassegna critica)
  • Parole Chiave: Chaperone system; Chaperonopathies by mistake; Chaperonotherapy; Differential diagnosis; Hsp27; Hsp60; Hsp70; Hsp90; Molecular chaperones; Thyroid tumors
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Thyroid cancers are the most common of the endocrine system malignancies and progress must be made in the areas of differential diagnosis and treatment to improve patient management. Advances in the understanding of carcinogenic mechanisms have occurred in various fronts, including studies of the chaperone system (CS). Components of the CS are found to be quantitatively increased or decreased, and some correlations have been established between the quantitative changes and tumor type, prognosis, and response to treatment. These correlations provide the basis for identi-fying distinctive patterns useful in differential diagnosis and for planning experiments aiming at elucidating the role of the CS in tumorigenesis. Here, we discuss studies of the CS components in various thyroid cancers (TC). The chaperones belonging to the families of the small heat-shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the chaperonin of Group I, Hsp60, have been quantified mostly by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in tumor and normal control tissues and in extracellular vesicles. Distinctive differences were revealed between the various thyroid tumor types. The most frequent finding was an increase in the chaperones, which can be attributed to the augmented need for chaperones the tumor cells have because of their accelerated metabolism, growth, and division rate. Thus, chaperones help the tumor cell rather than protect the patient, exemplifying chaperonopathies by mistake or collaborationism. This highlights the need for research on chaperonotherapy, namely the development of means to eliminate/inhibit pathogenic chaperones.