Intraguild Interactions between Egg Parasitoids: Window of Opportunity and Fitness Costs for a Facultative Hyperparasitoid
- Autori: Cusumano, A; Peri, E; Amodeo, V; McNeil, JN; Colazza S
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2013
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/79106
We investigated intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), as the former has the potential to be a facultative hyperparasitoid of the latter. We assessed the suitability of N. viridula eggs for the development of O. telenomicida as a function of egg age when they were unparasitized, or had been attacked by T. basalis at different times prior to exposure to O. telenomicida females. Ooencyrtus telenomicida can exploit healthy N. viridula host eggs up to 5 days of age, just prior to the emergence of N. viridula. This window of opportunity can be extended for an additional 6–7 days through interspecific competition or facultative hyperparasitism. While there are minor fitness costs for O. telenomicida as the result of interspecific larval competition, those costs are greater with facultative hyperparasitism. In choice assays O. telenomicida females discriminated between different quality N. viridula eggs, avoiding those where their progeny would have to develop as facultative hyperparasitoids of T. basalis. Results are discussed with respect to the possible effects that the costs of intraguild parasitism might have on biological control programmes.