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Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids: Essential Elements for Developing Effective Biological Control Programmes


This chapter first identifies the essential elements in insect parasitoid chemical ecology. Then, it reviews studies on the manipulation of natural enemies with semiochemicals at the population level and discusses the limits and perspectives of behavioural manipulation of parasitoids by applying semiochemicals, before it addresses the essential elements for developing effective biological control programmes using parasitoids and semiochemicals. The fact that the chemical ecological interactions between parasitoids and their hosts always involve other organisms prohibits the simple application of semiochemicals without considering the multi-species context. As a caveat, the chapter finally reviews an example of the chemical ecology of interspecific competitive interactions in parasitoids.