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Eddy covariance and sap flow measurement of energy and mass exchanges of woody crops in a Mediterranean environment

  • Autori: Motisi, A.; Rossi, F.; Consoli, S.; Papa, R.; Minacapilli, M.; Rallo, G.; Cammalleri, C.; D’Urso, G.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2012
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • Parole Chiave: olive, grapevine, orange, tree capacitance, hysteresis
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Evapotranspiration estimation by micrometeorological techniques through the assessment of mass and energy exchanges in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) is a very active research area, involving both well-known and novel measurement techniques. A crucial aspect in validating experimental results is the integration of independent measurements of mass and energy exchanges in the SPAC. To this aim, the development and validation of an integrated approach in major tree crop species, involving different independent techniques, are presented. Eddy covariance estimates of ET fluxes were compared to up-scaled sap flow measurements in olive, orange and grapevine, three important Mediterranean tree crop species with contrasting ecophysiological characteristics and responses to water deficits. These differences can affect directly the degree of coupling of the tree to the environment and, consequently, the degree of correspondence between instantaneous transpirational flux at tree level and the micrometeorological measurement of ET at orchard level. Data were analyzed to verify to what extent, in the three species, transpirational flow at orchard level is regulated by tree conductance, capacitance effects related to tree size or by environmental demand. Hourly observations were helpful in detecting physiological processes of the three species only when data were analyzed taking into consideration their diurnal changes.