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Functionalization of nanoparticles in specific targeting and mechanism release


The development of various nanotechnologies have provided a new field of research, which allows the manipulation of molecular components of matter and covers a vast array of nanodevices. The “smart” multifunctional nanostructures should work as customizable, targeted drug-delivery vehicles capable of carrying large doses of therapeutic agents into malignant cells. Some nanomedical approaches are based on the use of functionalized nanoparticles (NPs), not only to reduce toxicity and side effects of drugs but, also in potential the biological barriers crossing on, such as: the blood–brain barrier, different cellular compartments, including the nucleus. Currently, many materials are used for nanoparticle preparation, several of biological derivation, such as albumin, gelatin, phospholipids, etc.; others of chemical nature, such as various polymers, hydrogels, solid metals. Covalent and noncovalent chemical linking using different molecules have been reported for NPs surface functionalization, confer them specific properties, such as targeting ability. Based on the strategy chosen to control release (pH or redox or temperature sensitive NPs), different drugs are linked to NPs by adsorption, incorporation, or chemical binding. Use of smart nanocarriers can be a successful approach to overcome the limits of drug delivery.