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Associated Factors and Liver Disease Severity for Decreased Bone Mineral Density in HIV Mono- and HIV/HCV Co-infected Patients

  • Autori: Li Vecchi, V.; Soresi, M.; Giannitrapani, L.; Mazzola, G.; Colletti, P.; Amico, I.; Tramuto, F.; Granà, W.; Midiri, M.; Caruso, G.; Montalto, G.; Di Carlo, P.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2015
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
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Objective: We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in patients mono-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV). We also evaluated whether bone loss was linked to lipid asset in both groups and to severity of liver fibrosis in the co-infected group. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 194 HIV-patients (129 mono-infected and 65 co-infected). All HIV-patients underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while co-infected patients underwent transient elastography. Advanced liver fibrosis was defined as a median liver stiffness ≥ 9.5 kPa. Fibrosis was also assessed in all the HIV-patients using FIB-4. Results: The overall prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis was 26.8% and 26.0%, respectively. It was significantly higher among HIV/HCV co-infected than mono-infected patients in lumbar/femoral sites (P<0.04 and P<0.05, respectively). HDL-cholesterol levels correlated independently with lumbar DXA Z-score (P<0.03) in HIV mono-infected subjects. Liver stiffness correlated negatively and independently with femoral Z- and T-scores among co-infected patients (P<0.003; P<0.01, respectively). Stratifying co-infected subjects by sex, liver stiffness and lumbar/femoral Z-scores (P<0.04) or T-scores (P<0.05; P<0.04, respectively) correlated negatively only in the females. Longer PI exposure was negatively and independently correlated with BMD. Conclusion: Our HIV-infected patients appeared at high risk for low BMD and osteoporosis. Severity of liver fibrosis was an independent predictor of bone loss in co-infection, although other factors could affect the skeletal system in HIV/HCV co-infection. Further research into the impact of liver fibrosis and lipid asset on bone disease in HIV-infection is necessary.