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Ruolo dell'interazione NK/KIR nella storia naturale delle infezioni virali

  • Autori: Colomba, C.; Cascio, A.; Caruso, C.; Trizzino, M.; Gioã¨, C.; Guadagnino, G.; Tuttolomondo, A.; Pinto, A.; Saracino, A.; Angarano, G.; DI BONA, D.; Bilancia, M.; Nogare, R.; DE GRAZIA, S.; Duro, G.; Giannitrapani, L.; Sanfilippo, A.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2017
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • Parole Chiave: CMV; HBV; HIV; KIR; Natural killer; Viral infections; Medicine (all)
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Immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of the immune response against viral infections take into account the activation of both innate adaptative response. Innate immune defenses trigger a rapid local response, which is often sufficient to control viral infection, and promotes the subsequent activation of specific immune defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells that constitute a subpopulation of lymphocyte-related cells are a key factor of innate immune response and play a role in defense against viral infections by killing infected cells or by producing cytokines and interacting with adaptative immune system's cells. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activation of NK cells through their interaction with human leukocyte antigens (HLA). KIRs and HLA loci are highly polymorphic and certain HLA-KIRs combinations have been found to protect against viral infections. In this study we review how the KIRs/HLA repertoire may influence the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Results of our study suggest that a combination of KIRs/HLA gene/alleles is able to predict the outcome of viral infection and allows to plan successful customized therapeutic strategies.