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The chaperone system in glioblastoma multiforme and derived cell lines: diagnostic and mechanistic implications

  • Autori: Alberti G.; Campanella C.; Paladino L.; Porcasi R.; Caruso Bavisotto C.; Pitruzzella A.; Graziano F.; Florena A.M.; Argo A.; de Macario E.C.; Macario A.J.; Cappello F.; Bucchieri F.; Barone R.; Rappa F.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2022
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Novel treatments are needed to counteract the molecular mechanisms of GBM growth and drug resistance. The chaperone system (CS) members are typically cytoprotective but some, termed Hsp, can become pathogenic and participate in carcinogenesis, along with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and we investigated them in GBM biopsies and derived cell lines. The objectives were to identify diagnostic-prognostic biomarkers and gather information for developing chaperonotherapy. METHODS: Cell lines from GBMs were established, characterized (morphology, growth characteristics, and specific markers), and stored. Chaperones and angiogenic factors [Hsp10, Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90, FLT-1 (VEGFR-1), FLK1 (KDR, VEGFR-2), and FLT-4 (VEGFR-3)] were observed in cells by immunofluorescence while the chaperones were measured in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Four cell lines were derived from four different GBMs; the cells were spindle shaped or polygonal and grew at high rates as adherent monolayers or clusters without evidence of contact inhibition. The astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); and the neuronal NSE, malignancy VIM, and proliferation PCNA, markers were determined. The cells expressed GFAP but no NSE, indicating that they were primary glioblastoma cell lines, with high levels of Hsp10, Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp90, and Flk1; and low levels of Hsp70, Flt1, and Flt4. CONCLUSIONS: Four cell lines were established derived from four out of ten GBM tumors studied. The cell lines showed intense positivity for chaperones studied and factors connected to malignancy and the tumors showed increased levels of chaperones, making them potential diagnostic-prognostic biomarkers and targets for anti-cancer compounds.