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Ballistic Deficit Pulse Processing in Cadmium–Zinc–Telluride Pixel Detectors for High-Flux X-ray Measurements

  • Autori: Buttacavoli A.; Principato F.; Gerardi G.; Bettelli M.; Zappettini A.; Seller P.; Veale M.C.; Zanettini S.; Abbene L.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2022
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


High-flux X-ray measurements with high-energy resolution and high throughput require the mitigation of pile-up and dead time effects. The reduction of the time width of the shaped pulses is a key approach, taking into account the distortions from the ballistic deficit, non-linearity, and time instabilities. In this work, we will present the performance of cadmium–zinc–telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) pixel detectors equipped with digital shapers faster than the preamplifier peaking times (ballistic deficit pulse processing). The effects on energy resolution, throughput, energy-linearity, time stability, charge sharing, and pile-up are shown. The results highlight the absence of time instabilities and high-energy resolution (<4% FWHM at 122 keV) when ballistic deficit pulse processing (dead time of 90 ns) was used in CZT pixel detectors. These activities are in the framework of an international collaboration on the development of spectroscopic imagers for medical applications (mammography, computed tomography) and non-destructive testing in the food industry.