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Digital fast pulse shape and height analysis on cadmium-zinc-telluride arrays for high-flux energy-resolved X-ray imaging

  • Autori: Abbene, L.; Principato, F.; Gerardi, G.; Bettelli, M.; Seller, P.; Veale, M.; Zambelli, N.; Benassi, G.; Zappettini, A.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2018
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
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Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) arrays with photon-counting and energy-resolving capabilities are widely proposed for next-generation X-ray imaging systems. This work presents the performance of a 2â CZT pixel detector, with pixel pitches of 500 and 250â...μm, dc coupled to a fast and low-noise ASIC (PIXIE ASIC), characterized only by the preamplifier stage. A custom 16-channel digital readout electronics was used, able to digitize and process continuously the signals from each output ASIC channel. The digital system performs on-line fast pulse shape and height analysis, with a low dead-time and reasonable energy resolution at both low and high fluxes. The spectroscopic response of the system to photon energies below (109Cd source) and above (241Am source) the K-shell absorption energy of the CZT material was investigated, with particular attention to the mitigation of charge sharing and pile-up. The detector allows high bias voltage operation (>5000â...Vâ and good energy resolution at moderate cooling (3.5% and 5% FWHM at 59.5â...keV for the 500 and 250â...μm arrays, respectively) by using fast pulse shaping with a low dead-time (300â...ns). Charge-sharing investigations were performed using a fine time coincidence analysis (TCA), with very short coincidence time windows up to 10â...ns. For the 500â...μm pitch array (250â...μm pitch array), sharing percentages of 36% (52%) and 60% (82%) at 22.1 and 59.5â...keV, respectively, were measured. The potential of the pulse shape analysis technique for charge-sharing detection for corner/border pixels and at high rate conditions (250â...kcpsâ...pixel-1), where the TCA fails, is also shown. Measurements demonstrated that significant amounts of charge are lost for interactions occurring in the volume of the inter-pixel gap. This charge loss must be accounted for in the correction of shared events. These activities are within the framework of an international collaboration on the development of energy-resolved photon-counting systems for high-flux energy-resolved X-ray imaging (1-140â...keV).This work presents the performance of a 2â CZT pixel detector, with pixel pitches of 500 and 250â...μm coupled to a custom 16-channel digital readout electronics, performing on-line fast pulse shape and height analysis. Charge-sharing investigations were performed, at both low and high fluxes, using fine time coincidence analysis and pulse shape analysis.