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Nuovi gel di Fricke ad alta sensibilità e bassa diffusione per dosimetria 3D tramite MRI

  • Authors: Marrale, M.; Collura, G.; Gallo, S.; Nisi, S.; Tranchina, L.; Abbate, B.; Bartolotta, A.; D'Errico, F.
  • Publication year: 2017
  • Type: Contributo in atti di convegno pubblicato in volume
  • OA Link:


One of the most recent and promising developments in radiotherapy dosimetry was the introduction of 3D radiationsensitive gels. These gels present tissue equivalent composition and density, so they also serve as phantoms, and their response is largely independent of radiation quality and dose rate. Some gels are infused with ferrous sulfate and rely on the radiation-induced oxidation of ferrous ions to ferric ions (Fricke-gel). In this work Fricke gel dosimeters produced with a matrix of poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GTA) were analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This work focused on the analysis of the temporal diffusion of ferric ions through PVA-GTA gel dosimeters. PVA-GTA gel samples, partly exposed with 6 MV X-rays in order to create an initial steep gradient, were mapped using magnetic resonance imaging on a 7T MRI scanner for small animals. The results obtained with PVA-GTA gels were compared with those achieved with agarose gels, which is a standard dosimetric gel formulation. The analysis showed that the diffusion process is much slower (more than five times) for PVA-GTA gels than for agarose ones. Furthermore, MRI was performed on the PVA-GTA gels at 1.5 T with a clinical scanner in order to optimize the acquisition parameters and obtain high contrast between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The PVA gels were found to offer good linearity in the range of 0-10 Gy and a stable signal for several hours after irradiation. The sensitivity was about 40% higher compared to gels produced with agarose as gelling agent. The effect of xylenol orange (XO) on the MRI signal was also investigated: gel dosimeters made without XO show higher sensitivity to x-rays than those made with XO. The dosimetric accuracy of the 3D gels was investigated by comparing their MRI response to percentage depth dose and transversal dose profile measurements made with an ionization chamber in a water phantom. The comparison of PVA-GTA gels with and without XO showed that the chelating agent reduces the MRI sensitivity of the gels. Depthdose and transversal dose profiles acquired by PVA-GTA gels without XO are more accurate and consistent with the ionization chamber data.