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SIMONA FONTANA

Exosome A Clinical Compendium - Chapter 1: Exosome basic mechanisms

Abstract

Cell-cell communication plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis in multicellular organism. Cells communicate each other not only via the canonical pathways (cytokines, neurotransmitters, direct contact, ECM-mediated interactions or hormones) but also releasing extracellular vesicles that can reach different regions of the organism acting as a new “endocrine signalling mechanism”. Among extracellular vesicles, exosomes are emerging as efficient players to modulate target cells phenotype through the delivery to compliant receiving cells of a multitude of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, DNA, lipids, metabolites and proteins. A deeper understanding of their contents as well as of their mechanism of action is therefore needed to get the most from this incredible “cell treasure”.