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Ways to become old: Role of lifestyle in modulation of the hallmarks of aging


Lifestyle represents one of the most relevant aspects in aging research since it is an important modifiable factor that affects aging process. A healthy lifestyle can limit the damage caused by environmental influences that face us each day. As gerontology says, there are two ways to become old, without success (unsuccessful aging), manifested by people that develop one or more age-related diseases, and with success (successful aging), defined as the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability, which enables well-being in older age. Among the lifestyle factors that may influence successful aging and longevity, physical activity and healthy dietary habits have a great impact. Both can have systemic antiaging effects, playing a significant role in determining well-being of older people, and in delaying and reducing the risk of onset of diseases. Indeed, they can act on all the hallmarks of aging, nine molecular and cellular features that characterize aging phenotype. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the impact of nutritional strategies and exercise or physical activity on the hallmarks of aging.