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Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis masked by kidney failure in a male infant with a contiguous gene deletion syndrome at Xp22.31 involving the steroid sulfatase gene: case report

  • Authors: Schierz I.A.M.; Giuffre M.; Cimador M.; D'Alessandro M.M.; Serra G.; Favata F.; Antona V.; Piro E.; Corsello G.
  • Publication year: 2022
  • Type: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


Background: Contiguous gene deletion syndrome at Xp22.3 resulting in nullisomy in males or Turner syndrome patients typically encompasses the steroid sulfatase gene (STS) and contiguously located other genes expanding the phenotype. In large deletions, that encompass also the Kallmann syndrome 1 gene (KAL1), occasionally infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) have been reported. Patient presentation: We report on a male newborn with family history in maternal uncle of renal abnormalities and short stature still without ichthyosiform dermatosis. The baby presented CAKUT with kidney failure and progressive vomiting. Renal bicarbonate loss masked hypochloremic and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis classically present in IHPS and delayed its diagnosis. Antropyloric ultrasound examination and cystourethrography were diagnostic. After Fredet-Ramstedt extramucosal pyloromyotomy feeding and growing was regular and he was discharged home. Comparative whole-genome hybridization detected a maternal inherited interstitial deletion of 1.56 Mb on Xp22.31(6,552,712_8,115,153) × 0 involving the STS gene, but not the KAL1 gene. Conclusions: Aberrant cholesterol sulfate storage due to STS deletion as the underlying pathomechanism is not limited to oculocutaneous phenotypes but could also lead to co-occurrence of both IHPS and kidney abnormalities, as we report. Thus, although these two latter pathologies have a high incidence in the neonatal age, their simultaneous association in our patient is resembling not a chance but a real correlation expanding the clinical spectrum associated with Xp22.31 deletions.