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Fetal growth restriction: A growth pattern with fetal, neonatal and long-term consequences

  • Authors: Piro E.; Serra G.; Schierz I.A.M.; Giuffre M.; Corsello G.
  • Publication year: 2019
  • Type: Review essay (rassegna critica)
  • Key words: Brain sparing; Developmental impairment; Fetal growth restriction; Fetal programming; Ponderal index; Twins;
  • OA Link:


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are the terms used for a fetus which has not attained its full growth potential for gestational age. FGR is a multifactorial syndrome responsible for increased fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as long term adverse outcomes involving auxological, metabolic, organic and functional domains. Clinicians distinguish early and late onset FGR, in relation to specific fetal anthropometric parameters related to the possible primary etiology and to different patterns of placental and maternal cardiovascular pathologies. Delivery of an early onset FGR or growth impaired newborn with congenital pathology should be in tertiary care center, given the high perinatal morbidity. At hospital discharge the FGR infant should be enrolled, in a multidimensional individualized developmental follow-up. Subjects who have suffered from FGR should adopt a healthy lifestyle.