Epidemiology and pathophysiology of left ventricular abnormalities in chronic kidney disease: a review.
- Authors: Cerasola, G.; Nardi, E.; Palermo, A.; Mule', G.; Cottone, S.
- Publication year: 2010
- Type: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- Key words: Left ventricular hypertrophy; Left ventricular dysfunction; Chronic kidney disease.
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/50714
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and represent the major hazard for mortality in this population. Anomalies of left ventricular (LV) structure and function are very frequent too among CKD patients, and show a negative impact on cardiovascular prognosis. Methods: We searched PubMed for manuscripts regarding left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in CKD. Definition of LVH was different according to different studies. Results: In patients with end-stage renal disease, the prevalence of LVH is higher than 70%. Studies in patients with less advanced CKD have reported increasing prevalence of LVH along with declining renal function. However, there is relatively wide heterogeneity in the prevalence of LVH in different studies, according to the characteristics of the population studied, the method chosen to estimate glomerular filtration rate and the definition of LVH. Conclusions: Hypertension, alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance and anemia are identified as the major determinants of LVH in CKD. However, beyond hemodynamic factors, other factors, such as an inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, oxidative stress, inflammation and collagen and muscle cell growth factors may have a relevant role. LV diastolic dysfunction is also very frequent among CKD patients and is associated with risk of heart failure and with mortality; impairment of diastolic function in patients with CKD may occur very early, even in the absence of LVH. Early detection of LVH and LV dysfunction in CKD could yield an improvement in the adverse cardiovascular outcomes of CKD patients