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Endothelin-1 and F2-isoprostane relate to and predict renal dysfunction in hypertensive patients

  • Authors: Cottone, S.; Mule', G.; Guarneri, M.; Palermo, A.; Lorito, M.; Riccobene, R.; Arsena, R.; Vaccaro, F.; Vadala', A.; Nardi, E.; Cusimano, P.; Cerasola, G.
  • Publication year: 2009
  • Type: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • Key words: Disfunzione renale, aterosclerosi, endotelio.
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Background. Hypertension and additional non-traditional risk factors can damage the kidney directly and by promoting atherogenesis. Evidence indicates that increased oxidative stress and inflammation may mediate a large part of the effects of risk factors on the kidney. We hypothesized that in hypertensive patients (HT), oxidative stress, measured as 8-ISO-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-ISO-PGF2alpha), should raise paralleling decreasing renal function and should correlate with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods. In 626 HT with renal function ranging from stages 1 to 5 and 100 healthy controls, plasma levels of 8-ISO-PGF2alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured. GFR was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation. Results. When HT were stratified according to renal function stages, 8-ISO-PGF2alpha, CRP, TGF-beta and ET-1 increased progressively and significantly with decreasing eGFR. The multiple regression analysis, considering eGFR as a dependent variable, showed that 8-ISO-PGF2alpha (β = −0.361, P < 0.000001), ET-1 (β = −0.197, P < 0.0001) and TGF-beta (β=−0.170, P<0.0004) correlated independently with eGFR. All biomarkers were good predictors of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 [receiver-operatorcurve (ROC) areas]. ET-1was shown to be the best predictor with a ROC area = 0.938; with a threshold of 4 pg/ml, 91% sensitivity and 85% specificity were observed, whereas 8- ISO had a ROC area = 0.931, and for a threshold of 329 pg/ml, sensitivity and specificity were 89%, respectively. In contrast, CRP showed the lower predictive value with a ROC area = 0.917; with a threshold of 2.52 mg/l, an 87% sensitivity and an 83% specificity were obtained. Conclusions. Our findings are a clear-cut demonstration of a strong and negative correlation of both oxidative stress and ET-1 with renal function stages in HT. ET-1 and 8- isoprostane are predictive of eGFR.