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Structural Uses of Stone and Timber in The European Historical Construction


This paper investigates the stone masonry with timber reinforcement through Europe. It is a remarkable practice, either historical or contemporary, consisting of combining different materials to build up a masonry. This technology shows a wide variety of typological, formal, and technological types of buildings across Europe as it is strongly influenced by the nature and availability of local materials, the cultural aspects of the various communities, and the soils geological nature. As a consequence, the same constructive typology is based on different premises and leads to many interesting results. In this paper, the various uses of such a mixed stone-timber masonry are shown in relation to the above-mentioned factors. It is important to stress that this traditional technology is also highly contemporary as it is highly exploited in many countries. Furthermore, novel regulations have been issued to regulate such a discipline. Finally, as a very common constructive technology, many historical buildings present such a mixed structural configuration, independently from the generating factors. In such a perspective, this study aims to describe the most common constructive features, as well as develop guidelines for preservation, whereas the typology is present, or design criteria for consolidation and structural improvement, whereas necessary.