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Ketogenic and Modified Mediterranean Diet as a Tool to Counteract Neuroinflammation in Multiple Sclerosis: Nutritional Suggestions

  • Authors: Di Majo D; Cacciabaudo F.; Accardi G; Gambino G; Giglia G; Ferraro G; Candore G; Sardo P
  • Publication year: 2022
  • Type: Review essay (rassegna critica)
  • OA Link:


Ketogenic Diet is a nutritional pattern often used as dietotherapy in inflammatory dis-eases, including neurological disorders. Applied on epileptic children since 1920, in recent years it has been taken into account again as a tool to both reduce inflammatory burdens and ameliorate the nutritional status of patients affected by different pathologies. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an immune-mediated neuro-inflammatory disease and diet is a possible factor in its pathogenesis. The aim of this work is to investigate the main potential targets of MS-related impairments, in particular the cognitive deficits, focusing on the alteration of biomarkers such as the Brain Derived-Neurotrophic Factor and the Tryptophan/Kynurenine ratio that could play a role on neuroprotection and thus on MS progression. Furthermore, we here propose nutritional suggestions which are useful in the development of a ketogenic diet protocol that takes advantage of the anti-inflammatory properties of low-carbohydrate foods from the Mediterranean diet to be applied to subjects with MS. In conclusion, this approach will allow one to develop the ketogenic diet combined with a modified Mediterranean diet as a possible tool to improve neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis.