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Noise-induced effects in nonlinear relaxation of condensed matter systems

  • Authors: Spagnolo, B.; Valenti, D.; Guarcello, C.; Carollo, A.; Persano Adorno, D.; Spezia, S.; Pizzolato, N.; Di Paola, B.
  • Publication year: 2015
  • Type: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • OA Link:


Noise-induced phenomena characterise the nonlinear relaxation of nonequilibrium physical systems towards equilibrium states. Often, this relaxation process proceeds through metastable states and the noise can give rise to resonant phenomena with an enhancement of lifetime of these states or some coherent state of the condensed matter system considered. In this paper three noise induced phenomena, namely the noise enhanced stability, the stochastic resonant activation and the noise-induced coherence of electron spin, are reviewed in the nonlinear relaxation dynamics of three different systems of condensed matter: (i) a long-overlap Josephson junction (JJ) subject to thermal fluctuations and non-Gaussian, Lévy distributed, noise sources; (ii) a graphene-based Josephson junction subject to thermal fluctuations; (iii) electrons in a n-type GaAs crystal driven by a fluctuating electric field. In the first system, we focus on the switching events from the superconducting metastable state to the resistive state, by solving the perturbed stochastic sine-Gordon equation. Nonmonotonic behaviours of the mean switching time versus the noise intensity, frequency of the external driving, and length of the junction are obtained. Moreover, the influence of the noise induced solitons on the mean switching time behaviour is shown. In the second system, noise induced phenomena are observed, such as noise enhanced stability (NES) and stochastic resonant activation (SRA). In the third system, the spin polarised transport in GaAs is explored in two different scenarios, i.e. in the presence of Gaussian correlated fluctuations or symmetric dichotomous noise. Numerical results indicate an increase of the electron spin lifetime by rising the strength of the random fluctuating component. Furthermore, our findings for the electron spin depolarization time as a function of the noise correlation time point out (i) a non-monotonic behaviour with a maximum in the case of Gaussian correlated fluctuations, (ii) an increase up to a plateau in the case of dichotomous noise. The noise enhances the coherence of the spin relaxation process.