Skip to main content
Passa alla visualizzazione normale.


Occurrence of illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in the South of Italy

  • Authors: Cosenza, Alida*; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Piscionieri, Donatella; Fanara, Serena; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Viviani, Gaspare
  • Publication year: 2018
  • Type: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • OA Link:


In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG). The BEG, COC, MOR and THC-COOH were found at the highest concentration in both WWTPs. The Wastewater-based epidemiology calculation for BEG, COC, cannabinoids and THC-COOH was performed. On average, for both plants, population consumes 1.6 and 23.4 dose 1000 inh−1day−1of cocaine and cannabis, respectively. For WWTP-1 negative removals of illicit drugs were observed. For WWTP-2 the following average removal efficiencies were obtained: BEG (77.85%), COC (92.34%), CODEINE (64.75%), MOR (90.16%) and THC-COOH (68.64%).