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ROSARIO BARONE

Alzheimer’s disease and molecular chaperones: Current knowledge and the future of chaperonotherapy

  • Authors: MARINO GAMMAZZA, A.; CARUSO BAVISOTTO, C.; Barone, R.; Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.
  • Publication year: 2016
  • Type: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)

Abstract

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a dementia, a neurodegenerative condition, and a protein-misfolding disease or proteinopathy, characterized by protein deposits, extracellular plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, which contain the AD’s typical pathological proteins, abnormal [1]-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau, respectively, and are located predominantly in the cortex of the frontal, parietal, and temporal brain lobes. What is the role of molecular chaperones in AD? Data indicate that molecular chaperones, also known as Hsp, are involved in AD, probably displaying protective roles and/or acting as pathogenic factors as it occurs in chaperonopathies in which case AD would be suitable to chaperonotherapy. Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 can be augmented and overexpressed or diminished and downregulated in various situations in AD affected tissues and cells, indicating they are active during disease development and progression. Question: What is the role of molecular chaperones in AD? Data indicate that molecular chaperones, also known as Hsp, are involved in AD, probably displaying protective roles and/or acting as pathogenic factors as it occurs in chaperonopathies in which case AD would be suitable to chaperonotherapy. Objective: Investigate the role of Hsp in AD, focusing on Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90. Method: Critical examination of published data. Results: Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 can be augmented and overexpressed or diminished and downregulated in various situations in AD affected tissues and cells, indicating they are active during disease development and progression. Conclusion and Perspectives: Notwithstanding that the roles and mechanisms of action of chaperones in AD are still incompletely understood, there is already enough evidence to encourage the development of therapeutic strategies targeting them, either to block their activity in case they promote disease progression or to boost their performance when they are protective. The latter is an example of positive chaperonotherapy, which also includes chaperone replacement via gene or protein administration. On the contrary, if a chaperone is found to help the disease, it has to be blocked or eliminated, which constitute modalities of negative chaperonotherapy.

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