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Temperature increases, hypoxia, and changes in food availability affect immunological biomarkers in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

  • Autori: Parisi, M.; Mauro, M.; Sarà, G.; Cammarata, M.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2017
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
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Temperature increases, hypoxia, and changes in food availability are predicted to occur in the future. There is growing concern for the health status of wild and farmed organisms, since environmental stressors alter organism functions, and elicit coordinated physiological responses for homeostasis. Mussels are good bioindicators of environmental conditions. Their ability to maintain unaltered immunosurveillance under adverse environmental conditions may enhance their survival capability. Few studies are currently concerned with the relationships and feedback among multiple stressors. Here, food concentration, temperature, and oxygenation treatments were evaluated for their effects on immune enzymatic parameters of Mytilus galloprovincialis detected in the digestive gland and the lysosomal viability by neutral red uptake. Mussels were exposed to three temperatures (12, 20, and 28 °C) under normoxic (8 mg O2l−1) and anoxic conditions and specimens were fed with six food concentrations, ranging 0.2–5 g chlorophyll l−1. Temperature increases affected esterase and alkaline phophatase enzyme functionality, and addition of food buffered detrimental effects generated by harsh conditions, such as those provided by low oxygen concentrations. Kinetics of the phenoloxidase was negatively correlated with increasing temperature. In this case, food had a buffering effect that counteracted the limiting temperature only under normoxic conditions. In addition, the stability of the lysosomal membrane was altered under conditions of thermal stress and food change, under normoxic and anoxic conditions. Overall, environmental stress factors affected immune biomarkers of Mediterranean mussels, and the level of food acted as a buffer, increasing the thermal resistance of the specimens.