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Recurrent missense variant in the nuclear export signal of FMR1 associated with FXS-like phenotype including intellectual disability, ASD, facial abnormalities

  • Autori: Giuseppe Donato Mangano; Antonina Fontana; Vincenzo Salpietro; Vincenzo Antona; Giuseppa Renata Mangano; Rosaria Nardello
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2022
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
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Fragile X syndrome (FXS; MIM 300624) is an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by physical abnormalities associated with intellectual disability and a wide spectrum of neurological and psychiatric impairments. FXS occurs more frequently in males, 1 in 5000 males and 1 in 8000 females accounting for 1-2% of overall intellectual disability (ID). In more than 99% of patients, FXS results from expansions of a CGG triplet repeat (>200 in male) of the FMR1 gene. In the last years an increasing number, albeit still limited, of FXS subjects carrying FMR1 mutations including deletions, splicing errors, missense, and nonsense variants was reported. Nevertheless, the studies concerning the functional consequences of mutations in the FMR1 gene are rare so far and, therefore, we do not have sufficient knowledge regarding the genotype/phenotype correlation. We report a child carrying a hemizygous missense FMR1 (NM_002024.5:c.1325G > A p.Arg442Gln) variant, maternally inherited, associated with facial abnormalities, developmental delay, and social and communication deficits assessed with formal neuropsychological tests. The study contributes to highlighting the clinical differences between the CGG triplet repeat dependent phenotype and FMR1variant dependent phenotype and it also confirms the pathogenicity of the variant being reported for the second time in the literature.