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Kinetic evidence for the solubilization of pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline in alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(dimethylcethylammonium nitrate) surfactants. Role of the spacer chain length

  • Autori: TURCO LIVERI, M.; Lombardo, R.; Sbriziolo, C.; Viscardi, G.; Quagliotto, P.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2004
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
  • OA Link:


The incorporation of the bidentate ligand pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline (PADA) into micellar aggregates of the dimeric cationic surfactants propanediyl-, hexanediyl- and dodecanediyl-alpha,omega-bis(dimethylcetylammonium nitrate) (16-3-16,2NO(3)(-), 16-6-16,2NO(3)(-) and 16-12-16,2NO(3)(-), respectively) has been studied at 25 degreesC by examining the kinetics of the complexation reaction of the Ni(II) ion with this ligand. For comparison, cetyltrimethylammonium nitrate ( CTAN), which can be considered as the "monomeric'' surfactant of 16-3-16,2NO(3)(-), has also been used. The kinetic data have shown that, for 16-3-16,2NO(3)(-) and CTAN, at a surfactant concentration below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) the rate of the complex formation reaction does not significantly depend on the surfactant concentration, while it slightly decreases in the presence of the other two gemini surfactants. Beyond this critical value, in all cases examined, the rate constant is conspicuously inhibited by the presence of surfactant. The results below the cmc have been explained in the light of conductometric measurements, which have evidenced that both 16-6-16,2NO(3)(-) and 16-12-16,2NO(3)(-) form premicellar aggregates while 16-3-16,2NO(3)(-) and CTAN do not. The kinetic data above the cmc conform to a reaction mechanism that implies partitioning of the ligand only between the aqueous and the micellar pseudo-phases. The quantitative analysis of the kinetic data allows us to estimate the binding of PADA to the cationic micellar aggregates used. Solubilization of PADA in the micelles markedly depends on the nature of the surfactant used and, in particular, decreases on either increasing the spacer chain length or changing the surfactant type, namely conventional or gemini. These trends have been ascribed to the change in the shape of the micellar aggregates and, consequently, the hydrophobic character of the micelles, which can be modulated either by insertion of the spacer in the micellar interior or by using a conventional surfactant. The incremental free energy of transfer of a methylene group in the spacer chain from the aqueous to the micellar pseudo-phase has also been determined. The present data evidence that binding of PADA to micellar aggregates is primarily governed by hydrophobic interactions and the solubilization capability of gemini aggregates is superior to that of conventional micelles.