Immunity and Nutrition: The Right Balance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Autori: Tamburini B.; La Manna M.P.; La Barbera L.; Mohammadnezhad L.; Badami G.D.; Shekarkar Azgomi M.; Dieli F.; Caccamo N.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2022
- Tipologia: Review essay (rassegna critica)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/563702
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an increasingly urgent medical problem that strongly impairs quality of life for patients. A global rise in incidence has been observed over the last few decades, with the highest incidence rates recorded in North America and Europe. Still, an increased incidence has been reported in the last ten years in newly industrialized countries in Asia, including China and India, both with more than one billion inhabitants. These data underline that IBD is an urgent global health problem. In addition, it is estimated that between 20% and 30% of IBD patients will develop colorectal cancer (CRC) within their lifetime and CRC mortality is approximately 50% amongst IBD patients. Although the exact etiology of IBD is still being defined, it is thought to be due to a complex interaction between many factors, including defects in the innate and adaptive immune system; microbial dysbiosis, i.e., abnormal levels of, or abnormal response to, the gastrointestinal microbiome; a genetic predisposition; and several environmental factors. At present, however, it is not fully understood which of these factors are the initiators of inflammation and which are compounders. The purpose of this review is to analyze the complex balance that exists between these elements to maintain intestinal homeostasis and prevent IBD or limit adverse effects on people’s health.