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Human Drug Pollution in the Aquatic System: The Biochemical Responses of Danio rerio Adults

  • Autori: Manuela Mauro, Valentina Lazzara, Vincenzo Arizza, Claudio Luparello, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Gaetano Cammilleri, Luigi Inguglia, Mirella Vazzana
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2021
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


To date, drug pollution in aquatic systems is an urgent issue, and Danio rerio is a model organism to study the toxicological effects of environmental pollutants. The scientific literature has analyzed the effect of human drug pollution on the biochemical responses in the tissues of D. rerio adults. However, the information is still scarce and conflicting, making it difficult to understand its real impact. The scientific studies are not consistent with each other and, until now, no one has grouped their results to create a baseline of knowledge of the possible impacts. In this review, the analysis of literature data highlights that the effects of drugs on adult zebrafishes depend on various factors, such as the tissue analyzed, the drug concentration and the sex of the individuals. Furthermore, the most influenced biochemical responses concern enzymes (e.g., antioxidants and hydrolase enzymes) and total protein and hormonal levels. Pinpointing the situation to date would improve the understanding of the chronic effects of human drug pollution, helping both to reduce it in the aquatic systems and then to draw up regulations to control this type of pollution.