Biological Activity and Metabolomics of Griffonia simplicifolia Seeds Extracted with Different Methodologies
- Autori: Mannino, Giuseppe; Serio, Graziella; Gaglio, Raimondo; Maffei, Massimo E.; Settanni, Luca; Di Stefano, Vita; Gentile, Carla
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2023
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/607947
Griffonia simplicifolia, a tropical plant endemic toWest Africa, is highly regarded for its significant pharmacological potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolomic profile and to explore the antioxidant properties, antiproliferative activity, and antimicrobial potential of G. simplicifolia seed extracts obtained through either maceration, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), or Soxhlet extraction using water, acetone, methanol and ethanol as solvents. Overall, methanol possessed superior total extraction efficiency. HPLC analyses confirmed the efficacy of acetone and ethanol as optimal solvents for the extraction of flavonoids and flavan-3-ols, whereas MAE exhibited enhanced effectiveness in extracting N-containing compounds, including 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). HPLC-MS analyses identified forty-three compounds, including thirty-four phenolic compounds and nine N-containing molecules. Isomyricitrin, taxifolin and a flavonol glucuronide were the main polyphenols, whereas 5-HTP was the main N-containing compound. Hydroalcoholic G. simplicifolia extracts showed the highest radical scavenging and metal-reducing antioxidant power, suggesting that most of the contribution to antioxidant activity depends on the more polar bioactive compounds. G. simplicifolia extracts showed dose-dependent antiproliferative activity against three distinct cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2, and MCF-7), with notable variations observed among both the different extracts and cell lines and divergent GI50 values, emphasizing substantial discrepancies in cell sensitivity to the various extracts. Furthermore, G. simplicifolia extracts revealed antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Our results highlight the potential of G. simplicifolia phytochemicals in the development of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements.