Imidazolium-Functionalized Carbon Nanohorns for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide: Unprecedented Increase of Catalytic Activity after Recycling
- Autori: Calabrese, C.; Liotta, L.; Carbonell, E.; Giacalone, F.; Gruttadauria, M.; Aprile, C.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2017
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- Parole Chiave: carbon dioxide conversion; carbon nanohorns; cyclic carbonates; heterogeneous catalysis; imidazolium salts; Environmental Chemistry; Chemical Engineering (all); Materials Science (all); Energy (all)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/225007
Six new hybrid materials composed of carbon nanohorns (CNHs) and highly cross-linked imidazolium salts were easily synthesized using a one-step procedure based on the radical oligomerization of bis-vinylimidazolium salts (bVImiX) in the presence of pristine CNHs. The hybrid materials were characterized and employed as the sole catalysts for the conversion of carbon dioxide into cyclic carbonate by reaction with epoxides. The solids displayed excellent turnover number and productivity. Moreover, four catalysts were investigated in recycling experiments. Two catalysts containing an octyl linker between the imidazolium units and a bromide or an iodide anion showed no loss in activity after three cycles. The other two catalysts containing a p-xylyl linker and a bromide anion and different CNHs/bVImiX ratios showed an unprecedented increase of activity after recycling.