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On the Measurement and Prediction of the Out-of-Plane Displacement Surrounding Cold-Expanded Holes


Experimental measurements of the out-of-plane displacement surrounding cold-expanded holes in a 6082-T6 aluminum alloy were made with a 3D optical scanner using the technique of the encoded light-pattern projection in white light. The measured surface profiles have shown the thickness discontinuity along the hole edge due to the effect of the split in the sleeve. An analytical–numerical solution of the out-of-plane displacement is presented based on existing analytical models. Thus, the results given by the analytical model were then compared with the experimental data and with a finite element (FE)model that simulates the cold-expansion process. The location of the elastic–plastic boundary was estimated as the point at which no change in thickness was observed; a good agreement was found in the comparison of measured, FE and analytical results. The measured surface profiles agreed with those predicted by the FE model and analytical solution. The proposed experimental approach can be used together with FE analysis for predicting the radial and circumferential residual stresses in cold-expanded hole. It is quite versatile and can also be used as quality-control technique in the manufacturing processes of cold-expanded holes.