Mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and plasticity of human γδ T cells.
- Autori: Caccamo, N; Todaro, M; Sireci, G; Meraviglia, S; Stassi, G; Dieli, F
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2013
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/103825
Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity are the hallmarks of effector and memory T cells. Upon antigen stimulation, γδ T cells differentiate into two major types of memory T cells: central memory cells, which patrol the blood and secondary lymphoid organs, and effector memory cells, which migrate to peripheral tissues. γδ T cells display in vitro a certain degree of plasticity in their function that is reminiscent of that which is observed in conventional CD4 T cells. Similar to CD4 T cells, in which a plethora of specialized subsets affect the host response, γδ T cells may readily and rapidly assume distinct Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, T(FH) and T regulatory-like effector functions, suggesting that they profoundly influence cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. In addition to differences in cytokine repertoire, γδ T cells exhibit diversity in homing, such as migration to lymph node follicles, to help B cells versus migration to inflamed tissues. Here, we review our current understanding of γδ T-cell lineage heterogeneity and flexibility, with an emphasis on the human system, and propose a classification of effector γδ T cells based on distinct functional phenotypes.