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Activity of a Heterogeneous Catalyst in Deep Eutectic Solvents: The Case of Carbohydrate Conversion into 5‑Hydroxymethylfurfural


Obtaining industrially relevant products from renewable resources and developing processes under the light of sustainable chemistry is a prominent endeavor of present-day chemical research. In this context, herein we investigated the dehydration of fructose and sucrose in deep eutectic solvents promoted by the ion-exchange resin Amberlyst 15 as heterogeneous catalyst. We optimized the reaction conditions in terms of temperature, catalyst loading, and initial amount of substrate. Then, we looked at the effect of structural variations in the solvent components on the reaction outcome. Under the best experimental conditions, we obtained very good yields of 78% at 60 °C and 69% at 80 °C for fructose and sucrose, respectively. Our catalytic system could also be reused for at least five cycles without loss in yield. Finally, this study evidenced what structural features in the solvent components lead to the highest yields.